A process whereby two cells come in contact and exchange genetic material. In prokaryotes the transfer is a one-way process. The union of two bacterial cells, during which chromosomal material is transferred from the donor to the recipient cell. Conjugation in Protozoa is a two-way process, genetic material is passed between each conjugant….

pilus (plural pili)

A conjugation tube; a hollow hair-like appendage of a donor Escherichia coli cell that acts as a bridge for transmission of donor DNA to the recipient cell during conjugation (plural pili)…


Each of the two cells that separates after conjugation has taken place. A female bacterial cell that has just been in conjugation with a male and that contains a fragment of male DNA….


Sexual transmission of donor Escherichia coli chromosomal genes on the fertility factor. A process whereby a bacterium gains access to and incorporates foreign DNA brought in by a modified F factor during conjugation….

List of Biology Words Starting with C

C C-reactive protein c-src C3 plant C4 photosynthesis cachexia CAD calcified calcitonin Calcium calcium ions calcium phosphate calibrate calibration callus calorie calorimeter calyx cAMP campaniform sensilla canalized character cancellous bone cancer cancer-family syndrome Cannabinoids canopy cap capacitation capillary Capillary array capillary gel electrophoresis capillary zone electrophoresis CAPS capsid capso…


Nedd8 is a ubiquitin-like small protein modifier. The Nedd8 conjugation process, called neddylation, is similar to ubiquitination. Neddylation utilizes the E1 activating-enzyme complex composed of two subunits, APP-BP1 and UBA3, and the E2 conjugating-enzyme, UBC12 (Yeh, 2000). The only known substrates of neddylation are Cullin family proteins — Cul1, Cul2, Cul3, Cul4A, Cul4B, and Cul5 — which have been shown to be modified by Nedd8…

zygotic induction

When a prophage is passed into an F- cell during conjugation it may begin vegetative growth. The sudden release of a lysogenic phage from an Hfr chromosome when the prophage enters the F-(minus) cell, and the subsequent lysis of the recipient cell….

genomic island

A Genomic island(GI) is part of a genome that used to be mobile and is now fixed. A GI can code for many functions, can be involved in symbiosis or pathogenesis, and may help an organism’s adaptation. The same GI can occur in distantly related species as a result of various types of lateral gene transfer (transformation, conjugation, transduction). This can be determined by base composition analysis, as well as phylogeny estimations. Many…


nuclear reorganization in a single Paramecium cell similar to the changes that occur during conjugation….


Sex pili. Hair-like projections on an F+, an F’ or Hfr bacterium involved in anchorage during conjugation and presumably through which DNA passes….